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Evolution and Darwin

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Science

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Archaelogy, Neandertals, Disabled, DEAF

Older Neandertal Survived with a Little Help From His Friends

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An older Neandertal from about 50,000 years ago, who had suffered multiple injuries and other degenerations, became deaf and must have relied on the help of others to avoid prey and survive well into his 40s, indicates a new analysis published Oct. 20 in the online journal PLoS ONE.

Medicine

Science

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Cancer Research, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Research

Suicide Molecules Kill Any Cancer Cell

Small RNA molecules originally developed as a tool to study gene function trigger a mechanism hidden in every cell that forces the cell to commit suicide, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study, the first to identify molecules to trigger a fail-safe mechanism that may protect us from cancer.

Life

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Tracing Communism’s Reach, 100 Years After the Russian Revolution

To mark the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution, NYU's Joshua Tucker talks about communism’s legacy and how the Soviet Union changed the world.

Science

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Evolution, Computer Modeling, Evolutionary Theory, Biology, Genomes, small populations

Death by a Thousand Cuts? Not for Small Populations

In a paper published in Nature Communications, Christoph Adami, Michigan State University professor of microbiology and molecular genetics, and graduate student Thomas LaBar have provided a look at how certain species survive by evolving a greater ability to weed out harmful mutations – a new concept called “drift robustness”.

Science

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Fossil, Melanin, Protein, Sea Turtle, evoluion

Keratin, Pigment, Proteins from 54 Million-Year-Old Sea Turtle Show Survival Trait Evolution

Researchers have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54 million-year-old sea turtle hatchling. The work provides direct evidence that a pigment-based survival trait common to modern sea turtles evolved at least 54 million years ago.

Medicine

Science

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University of Vienna, Caesarean section, Birth, risk, Natural Selection, fetopelvic disproportion, Philipp Mitteroecker, Philipp Mitteröcker, c-section, PNAS

Risk of Caesarean Section Is Heritable

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Women born by Caesarean section due to a fetopelvic disproportion (FDP) are more than twice as likely to develop FDP when giving birth than women born naturally. This is the conclusion of a study by a team of evolutionary biologists at the University of Vienna headed by Philipp Mitteroecker. Using a mathematical model, the team was able to explain the paradoxical phenomenon that natural selection did not lead to the reduction in the rates of obstructed labour. Empirical data also support that the regular use of C-sections has already triggered an evolutionary increase of FPD rates.

Science

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beets, Colors, Plant Breeding, Amino Acids, plant evolution, Botany, Plants, Enzymes

UW Researchers Discover an Evolutionary Stepping Stone to Beet-Red Beets

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Writing this week (Oct. 9, 2017) in the journal New Phytologist, University of Wisconsin–Madison Professor of Botany Hiroshi Maeda and his colleagues describe an ancient loosening up of a key biochemical pathway that set the stage for the ancestors of beets to develop their characteristic red pigment.

Science

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Genomics, Energy, Enviroment, Department of Energy Office of Science, DNA, Genome Sequence, Genetics, Drought, Plant Cell Walls, Lignin, land plant, Biofuels, Evolution, Polyploidy, Horizontal gene transfer , Plant Stress

Liverwort Genes and Land Plant Evolution

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An international team including DOE Joint Genome Institute researchers analyzed the genome sequence of the common liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) to identify genes and gene families deemed crucial to plant evolution and have been conserved over millions of years and across plant lineages.

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New Chameleon Species Discovered (Video)

The Ph.D. candidate in UTEP’s Ecology and Evolutionary Biology program has discovered three new species of chameleons. The reptile trio, historically thought to be a single species, was found in different parts of the Albertine Rift in Central Africa.

Science

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Genes That Separate Humans From Fruit Flies Found

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Genes which determine animal complexity – or what makes humans so much more complex than a fruit fly or a sea urchin – have been identified for the first time.







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